Mayan Archaeology > Campeche > Campeche
The best example of Puuc architecture in the state of Campeche
Its name means “fertile soil exposed to the Sun”. The settlement was established on a valley in the Classic period, becoming an important city in the Puuc region centuries later.
Teobert Maler reported the site towards the end of the 19th Century, and called it Xcalumkín, because it is the name of the savannah where most of the buildings are located, although some buildings are also located on neighboring hills.
EThe tour begins in the building called Palace of the Cylinders, which is the largest structure in the site. Its main façade was to the south of the building which has a wide raised staircase; underneath there is an arch that provides access to the five chambers of this section. The palace had ten rooms. In its lower part, a group of several alternating cylinders with staggered fretwork can be appreciated, which is where they placed an anthropomorphic sculpture named “the old woman”, for its protection. The face of this sculpture seems to come out of a helmet that resembles the jaws of a reptile.
The Group of the Initial Series is formed by two buildings. The North Building or of the initial series has three chambers, the one to the east is the biggest, where the date of the initial series of 750 A.D. was found, which is why the building has a second name. The South Building had three chambers of which only one remains, where three monolithic columns stand out.
A short distance from this group is the House of the Great Lintel, which has three chambers and is where an enormous carved monolithic lintel is located. In the front, a standing individual can be seen, dressed with a feather headdress, a spear and a circular shield; on the other side there is a series of eight glyphic cartridges flanked by profile faces with feathered headdresses and circular ear pieces.
Lastly, the building on the northwestern hill has three rooms, each of which has a single south-oriented entrance.
Xcalumkín is considered the regional capital of at least 25 sites located on its surroundings and one of the richest in epigraphy, and is one of the best examples of Puuc architecture in the state of Campeche.
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It is located 85 kilometers northeast of the city of Campeche, east of the municipality of Hecelchakán